When tutoring students, I often use a problem-based approach. I select a variety of problems relevant to the subject matter that range in difficulty from being fairly simple to being very complex. I start by seeing if the student is able to solve the simpler problems before I proceed to the more complex problems/questions. I encourage the student to attempt to solve each problem on his or her own. When I observe that a student is struggling to solve a problem, I step in and try to guide the student to the solution without giving away too much information. In order to guide the student to the solution, I provide hints and ask the student to recall key pieces of information that he or she has already learned.
I would say that my approach involves more facilitation and guidance rather than teaching. I believe that students learn best when they arrive at a solution through guidance rather than being shown how to solve the problem and then having to replicate the method shown. However, when I observe that a student lacks the fundamentals necessary to be able to solve certain problems and answer particular questions, I feel the necessity to teach the student the basics, and in those instances, I do less facilitating and more teaching.